2. Triple JumpEach athlete attempts to jump as far as possible. They run down the 40m-45m track before reaching the take off point. There are three phases in the jump – hop, bound and jump. The athlete must hop and land on the same foot, then immediately takeoff after the hop, this time landing on opposite leg, at last jump from that same foot to land in a sand pit. 3. Discus Throw Each athlete has 8 attempts to throw the discus as far as possible. The discus can only be thrown when the athlete stands inside a circle which has a diameter of 2.5m, they cannot touch the ground beyond the circle. Athletes are allowed to touch the inner part of the rim, but they are prohibited from touching the top of the rim. If the athlete leaves the circle before the discus lands, then it will be considered as a foul throw.4. Hurdling Athletes must attempt to jump over every hurdle in their lane as fast as possible. Athletes must jump over a hurdle, instead of going under or around. Knocking over hurdles is permitted accidentally but not deliberately, this can result in disqualification. 5. Relay In a relay race, there are usually four athletes. The leadoff runners take off with a baton in their hands when they hear the starter’s gun. After each runner runs his or her leg, they must hand off the baton within a 20 meter area – or else the team will be disqualified. If a runner drops the baton while passing or in the middle of the race, the team is disqualified. 6. Pole Vault Each athlete attempts to use a pole to vault over a bar that is set at a specific height. They can choose his or her height that they wish to be entered for in competitions. If the bar is dislodged but cleared by the athlete, it is considered as a foul. Athletes have three attempts to clear the height; if cleared, they can advance to the next height and will again have three more attempts. If the athlete fails to clear all three attempts, they are out and their highest height is recorded. 7. Javelin Throw Each athlete must attempt to throw the javelin as far as possible. For a valid throw, the javelin must land in a specified zone and its tip should hit the ground. The thrower cannot leave the runway or cross the throw line until after the javelin lands. 8. a.Heptathlon and b. Decathlon 8a. A heptathlon is splitted into two days, and combined with 7 track and field events. Men’s heptathlon includes 60 metres, long jump, shot put, high jump, 60 metres hurdles, pole vault and 1000 metres. Women’s heptathlon includes 100 metres hurdles, High jump, Shot put, 200 metres, Long jump, Javelin throw and 800 metres. The rules for each event within the heptathlon are the same as the individual events, with a few exceptions. Athletes are allowed two false starts, and they receive only three attempts in throwing and jumping events. Competitors cannot pass on any event. Failing to attempt any single event results in disqualification. 8b. A decathlon is splitted into two days, and combined with 10 track and field events. Men’s decathlon includes 100 metres, Long jump, Shot put, High jump, 400 metres, 110 metres hurdles, Discus throw, Pole vault, Javelin throw and 1500 metres. Women’s decathlon includes 100 metres, Discus throw, Pole vault, Javelin throw, 400 metres, 100 metres hurdles, Long jump, Shot put, High jump and 1500 metres. The rules for a decathlon is similar to the rules for heptathlon9. Sprint Athletes must run in a straight line as fast as possible. On the starter’s gun all runners begin the race. Any athletes who leave his/her lane or obstructs the path of another sprinter will be automatically disqualified from the race. The winner is the first athlete to cross the finish line. 10. Shot Put Each athlete must attempt to throw the shot as far as possible. They must take their throw inside a 7 feet circle, with a toe board at the front. The resting position of the shot is near the neck and the shot must land within a specified area. The shot putters must enter and leave the circle from the rear half of the circle, or a foul is called. 11. High Jump Each athlete has three attempts to clear each bar. Athletes must take off on one foot, and crossbar must remain in place after the jump. Athletes begin jumping at any height announced by the chief judge, or they can pass. If the athlete fails to clear the height in three attempts, then he/she will be disqualified. Whoever clears above the bar with the highest height is the winner. 12. Steeplechase Each athlete must attempt to complete the race as fast as possible. The 3000 event includes 28 hurdles and 7 water jumps. The jumps begin after the runners past the finish line for the first time. There are 5 jumps in each of the final 7 laps, with the water jump as the fourth. Each runner must go through the water pit and must jump over each hurdle. 13. Hammer Throw Each athlete must attempt to throw the hammer as far as possible. The hammer is thrown from a circle with a 2.135m diameter. Athletes can touch the inside of the circle’s rim but they cannot touch the the top of the rim during the throw. Athletes cannot touch the ground outside the circle and they cannot leave the circle until the hammer lands. 14. Marathon Each athlete must attempt to run a long distance as far as possible. The athletes are not permitted to run on grassy or soft lands. Athletes are not allowed to take refreshment at places not specified by the organizing committee as the refreshment station. However, an athlete is allowed to leave the road with permission of a judge. After leaving the road, the athlete has to be under supervision of the judge, so that he cannot take any short cuts. 15. Walking events Each athlete must attempt to walk as fast as possible. The athlete’s front foot must be on the ground when the rear foot is raised. Also, the front leg must be straighten when it makes contact with the ground. The athlete is disqualified if they receive three red cards from three different judges.