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Abstract—The aim of this study is to consider angulation and inclination of teeth
from the mould obtained by the patient through impression along with occlusion
and evaluation with respect to the actual impression and determine its torque
value to continue the further process by three different bracket systems. The
function and motivation of this project includes automation in the most
neglected field of medical which is dentistry. The automation in this project
includes greater accuracy and reduced labour work of setting braces.

 

Keywords: Orthodontics , Braces ,
Automation , Torque and Angulation (Two Axis)

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I.                   
INTRODUCTION

Our
project is based on “Two Axis Angulations System”, which consist of
Angulations and Inclination (Torque).This two axis are used to make a Braces
using the set of brackets fixed on a different angle with different torque
applied. These braces are first aligned on a dummy jaw of that person. After
constructing the braces, it is removed from the dummy jaw and it is attached to
the teeth’s of that person with the help of some kind of adhesive. Basically
this whole project is based on making a braces, making a braces is a long
process. Mostly it takes an hour or more than an hour to set up the braces on
the teeth of an individual.

There are some machine which makes it easy to
prepare a brace , but most of them must be handled manually which again becomes
a hectic task for the dentist and it consumes a lot of time. While preparing a
brace manually can also induced some errors or inaccuracy. Hence due to some
miscalculations the preparation of braces can go wrong.

 

The three order bends which will be replaced
are as following:

1.        
Replacing first order bends: variations in the thickness of individual teeth
are compensated by varying the bracket thickness.

2.        
Replacing second order bends: the bracket slots are angulated
mediodorsally relative to the long axis of the tooth to achieve proper
positioning of the tooth roots in the mesial-distal dimension.

3.        
Replacing third order bends: the angulation of the facial surfaces of
individual teeth vary markedly with the true vertical. Bracket slots are
inclined labiolingually to achieve proper labiolingual tooth inclination.

The angulation and torque values built into brackets are called the
appliance prescription.

These incorporated modifications would precisely position the average
tooth.

 

II.                 
MOTIVATION

 

The main motive of this
project is to make a prototype of manually operated braces making machine as
automated. This would reduce the probability of occurrence of errors and
inaccuracy in the process of making braces manually. Which would be
proportional to the reduction in time and cost of the  braces making process.

When a patient visits a
dentist , the treatment provided should not only
satisfy the patient’s esthetic desires but also satisfy certain functional and
physiologic requirements.

The aims of orthodontic
treatment is summarized by Jackson as Jackson’s Triad :

1.        
Functional Efficiency

2.        
Structural Balance

3.        
Esthetic Harmony

 

 

Figure 2.1: Jackson’s Triad

Functional Effieciency :

Many malocclusion affect
normal functioning of the stomatognathic system. The orthodontic treatment
should thus aim at improving the functioning of the orofacial apparatus.

 

Structural Balance:

The oro-facial region
consist of the dentoalveolar system, the skeletal tissue and the soft tissue
including musculature. Stable orthodontic treatment is best achieved by
maintaining a balance between these three tissue systems.

 

Esthetic Harmony:

By far the most common
reason for seeking orthodontic care is to improve the appearance of the teeth
& face. Many malocclusion are associated with unsightly appearance of teeth
& can thus affect the individual’s self image, well being & success in
society. Thus the orthodontic treatment should aim at improving the esthetics
of the individual. 

 

 

III.                   
LITERATURE SURVEY

 

In 2013, Andrews LF published the paper
‘straight-wire appliance, origin, controversy,
commentary’. The aim of this study was to evaluate angulation and
inclination of teeth from the study models of individuals with normal occlusion
and evaluation of actual expression of torque expressed by three different
bracket systems.

 

In 2016, Germane
N, Bentley BE, Jr, Isaacson RJ published the paper ‘Three biologic variables
modifying faciolingual tooth angulation by straight-wire appliances’ in which the
facial surface contours of 600 maxillary and mandibular teeth, including 50 of
each type of tooth from central incisors to first molars, were measured. Facial
contours present at the same location, facial contours from occlusal/incisal to
gingival surfaces and the angle formed by the coronal and radicular long axes
varied among teeth of the same type. The magnitude of the variation found was
so great as to suggest that differences between patients or differences in
height of bracket placement are greater than the differences between the
standard torque prescriptions now used in orthodontics. No single point,
including the coronal midpoint (LA point), was found to be constant among teeth
of the same type. Variation in facial surface contour tended to be greater in
the posterior teeth than in the anterior teeth. Future custom construction of
brackets, adjusted to individual facial contour differences, will also require
information regarding optimal tooth position in the head, including
compensations necessary for variations in facial skeletal pattern.

Dentalbraces  in orthodontics are devices  that
arrange and straighten the alighnment of the teeth and position them with
regard to the ideal teeth, while also aiming to improve dental health. They are
often used to rectifyunderalingnment and underbite,aswell
as malocclusions, overbites, open bites, deep bites, cross
bites, crooked teeth, and various other flaws of the teeth
and jaw.

Braces can be of two types cosmetic or structural, depending
on the need or requirement on the patient. They are often used with or in
combination with other orthodontic appliances to help brodenthe palate or to otherwise assist
in shaping and aligning the teeth and jaws.

Looking towards the initial stage of
this project, It was EdwardAngle who devised the first simple classification system for
malocclusions in the braces aligning field, and also further mordenised this as
Class I and Class II models that had same but advanced allighningfrunctions.
Sir Edwards classification system is still used today as a method for dentists
to describe how crooked teeth are, what manner or way teeth are pointing, and
how they fit together.

Angulation and Torque
measuring parameters contributed greatly to the design of orthodontic and
dental appliances, making many alignment to simplify.

Our project ‘Two Axis Angulation System’
works on the similar function of teeth alignmnet but in an advanced manner. We
authors have strived to increase the automation and accuracy by replacing
certain components and adding more features. Our project has an enormous
difference in the working method except the functional basic blocks remain
same.

 

IV.                   
METHODOLOGY

 

The working of the project has totally changed its methodology. The time
consuming project has changed its manual procedure to Automation through
certain interfacings and extrapations of certain devices.

To this project the direction and movement is provided by the Servomoter
that is fixed in support to its brackets and movement is handled at a total
revolution of 360 deg’s. That would cover the area and alignment of the whole
mouth. The excultion of Rotary Encoder from Servomoter saves the unwanted
vibrations and inaccurate initial and final positions. Talking about the
extrapation of man power and time consumption in the process the interfacing of
a keypad would allow the user to enter the prescribed values as assigned by the
doctor after examining the mould. These values are then further displayed on
the LCD (16×2 alligned). The knowledge towards understanding the measuring
paraments is put in through AURDINO MEGA. The parameters are burned into its
library and further process is checked.

We also do not assure the complete braces formation

but only the brackets production and making. For the whole braces to be
connected is done with the help of a silver string or Tar.

These Braces then have a constant pressure which, over time, move teeth
into the desired positions. The process loosens the tooth after which new bone
grows in to support the tooth in its new position. This process forms a perfect
ideal or required allignmnet of the teeth.

 

 

a.      
COMPONENTS

 

Arduino mega:

The Arduino Mega is a microcontroller board
based on the ATmega1280 (datasheet). It has 54 digital input/output pins (of
which 14 can be used as PWM outputs), 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs (hardware
serial ports), a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an
ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the
microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it
with an AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. The Mega is compatible with
most shields designed for the Arduino Duemilanove or Diecimila.

 

Servo motors:

 A servo motor is a rotary
actuator or linear actuator that allows for precise control of angular or linear position, velocity
and acceleration. It consists of
a suitable motor coupled to a sensor for position feedback. It also requires a
relatively sophisticated controller, often a dedicated module designed
specifically for use with servomotors. Servomotors are used in applications
such as robotics, CNC
machinery or automated manufacturing.

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)  16*2:

This screen is an electronic
display module and find a wide range of applications. A 16×2 LCD display is
very basic module and is very commonly used in various devices and circuits.
These modules are preferred over seven segments and other multi segment LEDs. The reasons being: LCDs are economical; easily programmable;
have no limitation of displaying special & even custom characters (unlike in seven segments), animations.

 

Keypad
4*4:

Matrix keypad use a
combination of four rows and four columns to provide button states to the host
device, typically a microcontroller. Underneath each key is a push button, with
one end connected to one row, and the other end connected to one column. This
16-button keypad provides a useful human interface component for
microcontroller projects. Convenient adhesive backing provides a simple way to
mount the keypad in a variety of applications.

In the matrix keypad, the first 4 pins are for rows and next 4 pins are for columns. The user can connect the keypad to any digital pin of
Arduino Mega.

 

Smps
(switched mode power supply):

A switched-mode power supply (switching-mode power supply, switch-mode power supply, switched

power supply, SMPS, or switcher) is an electronic power
supply that incorporates a switching regulator to convert electrical power efficiently. Like other power supplies, an SMPS transfers power from a
DC or AC source (often mains power), to DC loads, such computers while converting voltage and current
characteristics.

Switching regulators are used as
replacements for linear regulators when higher efficiency, smaller size or
lighter weight is required. They are, however, more complicated; their
switching currents can cause electrical noise problems if not carefully
suppressed, and simple designs may have a poor power factor.

 

a.      
BLOCK DIAGRAM

 

Figure 4.1: Architecture of the prototype

 

 

 

b.       ALGORITHM

 

 

 

V.                 
FUTURE
SCOPE

 

We plan to improve our
project by using some advanced or more efficient components such as some more
efficient controllers and stepper motor instead of servo motors. Controllers
like:

1.        
MSP430 Launch
Pad

2.        
Nanode

3.        
Pinguino PIC32

4.        
STM32
Discovery

5.        
Teensy 2.0

We plan to improve our
project by using some advanced or more efficient components such as some more
efficient controllers and stepper motor instead of servo motors. Ways in which Stepper Motor is better than Servo
Motor :

Stepper motors have a more number of
poles, magnetic pairs of north and south poles generated either by a permanent
magnet or an electric current,typically 50 to 100 poles. In comparison, the servo
motors have very few poles, often 4 to 12 in total. Each pole offers a natural
stopping point for the motor shaft. Higher number of poles allows a stepper

motor to
move accurately and precisely between each pole and allows a stepper to be
operated without any position feedback for many applications. Servo motors
often need a position
encoder to keep
track of the position of the motor shaft, specially if precise movements are
required.

Driving a
stepper motor to a precise position is simpler than driving a servo motor. With
a stepper motor, a single drive pulse will move the motor shaft one step, from
one pole to the next. Step size of a given motor is fixed at a certain amount
of rotation, moving to a precise position is simply a matter of sending the
right number of pulses.

 

VI.              
RESULT AND DISCUSSION

The aim, motivation and arrangement behind this paperwork
is to complete a medical process in clinically upright rules (according to the
legal practise given) The aurdinomentions the torque and angulation defined on
the LCD through keypad and the servos

movement woulkd carry on with the complete process.

There are again chances of inaccuracy and inefficiency
where it is not possible for the servomoter to understand all possible teeth
angles, as the allignmnet can be of the worst case. This will need to add up a
smart instruments like a sensor or any active device that would understand this
misalignmnet.  

 

VII.            
CONCLUSION

 

The methodology to complete the manually operated process requires a
time span of about 20 minutes whereas TWO AXIS ANGULATION SYSTEM (this
project), uses only a time limit of 3 to 5 minutes to complete its operation
also it is observed that the automation indulges a automation process that
increases the accuracy of this project.

Not only this but replacing some components compared to the manual once
like replacing rotary encoder with servomoter is again very beneficial.

 

ACKNOWEDGEMENT

 

It is indeed a matter of
great pleasure and proud privilege to be able to present this project on ‘TWO AXIS ANGULATIONS  SYSTEM’. The completion

of the project work is a
milestone in student life and its execution is inevitable in the hands of
guide. We are highly indebted to the project guide Dr. SC Patil his invaluable
guidance and appreciation for giving form and substance to this report. It is
due to her enduring efforts, patience and enthusiasm, which has given a sense
of direction and purposefulness to this project and ultimately made it a
success.

We would like to tender
our sincere thanks the staff members of Electronics Engineering department for their co-operation.

 

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