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CHAPTER
2

REVIEW
OF LITERATURE AND STUDIES

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This chapter will show the literature
and studies from foreign and local authors that are used by the researchers for
further understanding of the subject matter of this research.

Effects on academic performance of school
location

            The
objective of this study is to find out which distance affected the student’s
academic performance in Makambako Town council’s secondary schools. Mhiliwa
(2015), the researcher, conducted his research in five community secondary
schools in Makambako TC. The data used in his research was gathered involved 2
educational officers, 12 teachers and 200 students (consists of 80 boys and 120
girls) with the use of semi-structured interview guide, questionnaires and
documentary review, through random purposive sampling technique. The data is determined
by using inductive analysis procedures. Then find out that the longer the
distance students travel in going to school, resulted in arriving to schools
late and with empty stomachs. Mhiliwa claimed that location of school has lead
to mass failure to most students and some have caused dropout thus fail to
attain their educational goals.

Relationship
of school distance and academic achievement

            This study aimed to investigate the relationship between
academic achievement and school distance of primary school pupils. The
population was comprised by all the primary schools in the said location. A
structured questionnaire served as the instrument and was established using the
test re-test method to ensure its reliability. Using the Pearson Product Moment
Correlation (PPMC), the researchers analyzed the data gathered. The findings of
the study revealed that there is a positive, but very low positive, relationship
between the academic achievement of primary school pupils in Ovia North-East
Local Government Area and school distance. There is no significant relationship
explained between the two variables.

Long
journeys to school undermine Education

            “Negative impact of taking long journeys to school have affects
a student’s health and on their education achievement levels” claimed one of
the conclusions of a recent study on absenteeism by the scientific institute of
the German health Care insurance company AOK. According to VBE (Verband Bildung
and Erziehung) federal and national President Udo Beckmann, neither education
authorities nor national governments examined the impact of long travel hours on
the student’s health and learning abilities in going to or from schools. He
claimed that travelling for up to three hours per day tires a child’s body more
than in adults.

            He
also stated other consequential factors that affects a student physically and
psychologically like carrying a schoolbag longer, getting up earlier to go to
school and doing assignments later as well as reduction of free time necessary
for a balanced life. Because of these reasons, students may suffer the outcomes
like exhaustion and headaches.  Adults
that are part of a working environment have dealt and experienced such symptoms
and are mentally stronger than children, which are much more subject to stress
and exhaustion.

How
traffic affect commuters

In our daily lives commuters are
dealing with long traffic and other transportation hindrances. Based on LTO’s (Land
Transportation Office) study, in the past few years, there’s 2,101,148
registered vehicles around Metro Manila. The traffic worsens every year,
compared to past years. Inquirer.net listed some impacts of traffic on
commuters:

            Underperformance.
Based on the Philippine Statistics Authority, half of the 37 million workers in
the Philippines take the easiest route in going to their respected companies every
day. Billions of students are also depending on public transportations. Longer
the hours the students and workers deal with long traffic may affect their performance
physically and mentally.

            Unbalanced
time. People getting up earlier to prepare for work or school do not guarantee punctuality
since traffic is unpredictable, especially in times of rush hour.

            Overall
fatigue. Having to seat hours at the bus while thinking of problems at school
and work causes stress to commuters. With addition of pollution and heat may
result to having over fatigue and overtiredness.

            Inquirer.net
(2015) also suggested alternatives and tips on how commuters can protect their
health to prevent illnesses like drinking vitamins, exercise and balanced diet,
proper sleep, using masks for protection from air pollution. Traffic has become
part of every commuter’s lives, there is no easy way to escape from it, but
there is a way for commuters to overcome the negative effects from it by making
their lifestyles healthy as possible.

Stress
and Fatigue amidst Traffic clog Affect Your Health

Due to thunder storm that results to
flood, most commuters spend hours on the road during rush hour and were caught
up by a terrible traffic clog along EDSA and its nearby roads.  Considering rain or protesters conquering the
road are not the only reason for the traffic that we’ve been experiencing,
above all, traffic clogs had been part of our daily life. Moreover, according
to Numbeo.com (2015), the Philippines placed fifth on the categories with the
worse traffic in the whole world.

            A
traffic clog is not the only reason to cause delay on people with their labor or
with their errands but more studies shows that, being in a city with a never
changing traffic will result in having a negative effect on your health. In
case of other commuters who were caught in a traffic clog, some of them were
experiencing sleep deprivation specifically to those who are forced to wake up
early in the morning to avoid rush hour and get to work on time.

            Based
on The Telegraph (2013) “A week with less than six hours of sleep each night
can lead you to 711 changes in how genes work.” In additional, being sleep deprived
can also affect the accomplishments, attention, and
long-term memory. Additionally, sleep deprivation can cause anxiety,
exhaustion, frustration, impulsive behavior, lower immunity, and some mental
health problems. Furthermore, this can encourage to do drugs and alcohol
consumption.

Preventing memory from
stress

This study determines that stress has
a big impact to our memory and so Dr. Klemm invented this study. According to
William R. Klemm Ph.D Memory Medic, It is notorious that stress can damage our
memory. This sort of experience that many of us has been known. Academic
performances of students has becoming worse because of struggling in stress
(Better Grades. Less effort 2011) Often Experiencing stress may cause failure
to our memory. Brain freezes, like Perry’s, other thoughts cannot apparent when
stress fills in our mind.

Buy some of this came from the
“fight or flight” response where stress triggered and the bloodstream
penetrates the adrenalin. (Memory power 101) When Adrenalin arises, it
activates the raising of heart rate and blood pressume and causes us to be
afraid and anxious. Laboratory experiments proves that the acceleration of
attentiveness has a beneficial effect on memory. And could injure our memory.

There are some happenings during
stress that can drives the anterior pituitary gland’s release of ACTH, to get
rid of cortisol toward the inside of bloodstream. For short, cortisol has the
ability to fight or prevent the stress. The white blood cells mobilizing and
enhancing immune system. Lastly, if we keep on encountering stress the process
of impairment will gets worst and the word cure will be impossible

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