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      Closely related to Heidegger’s concept of
authenticity and Sartre’s bad faith, Simone de Beauvoir’s also laid down her
ideas in Ethics of Ambiguity. Beauvoir operates within a Sartrean ontological framework,
but the difference can be seen in her assertion that the trap of bad faith is
not inevitable. According to both Sartre and Beauvoir, projects of bad faith
fundamentally aim at fleeing our freedom. We pursue it in order to appease
anxiety in the face of freedom and to avoid the metaphysical risks involved in
what Sartre describes as making ourselves a lack of being, or exercising
transcendence (Acampora 2002). By “lack of being” Sartre would consider
it the state or condition in
which people cannot transcend their “situation” in order to realize what they
must be (self-conscious humans) and what they are not (social roles). The concept of “situation” by Sartre is best analyzed in
being and nothingness where he famously said that:

“There
is freedom only in a situation, and there is a situation only through
freedom… There can be a free for-itself only as engaged in a resisting world.
Outside of this engagement the notions of freedom, of determination, of
necessity lose all meaning” – Sartre 1943

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 Beauvoir just like others emphasizes the idea
of self-conception and  laid huge
emphasis on culture-
saying cultural identity
provides an individual with a clear prototype with which to engage the
processes necessary to construct a clear “personal identity” and, by
extension,  keep them living in the
shadow of “the other”. People’s views are constructed in form of interdependent
/independent structures. Because meanings are derived from culture; people
sometimes find the need to be associated or recognized with a group or a belief
system.  This conception of “The Other”
(society, value, conformity …etc.), Beauvoir says, is a constituent part of
self-consciousness.

             

 Beauvoir just like others emphasizes the idea
of self-conception and  laid huge
emphasis on culture-
saying cultural identity
provides an individual with a clear prototype with which to engage the
processes necessary to construct a clear “personal identity” and, by
extension,  keep them living in the
shadow of “the other”. People’s views are constructed in form of interdependent
/independent structures. Because meanings are derived from culture; people
sometimes find the need to be associated or recognized with a group or a belief
system.  This conception of “The Other”
(society, value, conformity …etc.), Beauvoir says, is a constituent part of
self-consciousness.

                        Because
the society is based on a rigid value system that we are suited to following,
we are bond to live in accordance with the traditions and norm. These norms and
conformity is hard to divert from because our perceptions have been pre-created
and are shaped by these already made standards. Before the birth of a new life
it seems that some aspects of this unborn child have been predetermined based
on the surroundings. When the newborn is born, he/she starts to live in his/her
facticity; this facticity defines this new life. As the child grows, the child
is raised according to the culture of the people. The social interaction in
school is formed, the “accepted behavior” is shaped at home, the child beliefs
are groomed by the religious institution and as the child develops, he/she
conforms. With all these making up the child’s facticity, it would be unreal to
say that the child can completely avoid Bad
Faith. This does not lessen the freedom of the child but with growth and
time, the child is exposed to his/her freedom of choice and also a subjective
mind.

            As
a result of societal values and culture, the inevitable consequence is to adopt
bad faith, while at the same time recognizing our every choice. Although
adopting bad faith ultimately denies our freedom according to Sartre, but
consistently acknowledging other options also defines human’s will and freedom.
Therefore, although unavoidable, rather than viewing Bad Faith as a negative consequence of freedom, it can be
considered as an essential and necessary concept, with regard to the human
condition. Much of human society is built around the concept of bad faith, and
it possesses social and cultural norms and roles which individuals adopt or
adhere to in order to successfully function on a daily basis.

                        Furthermore,
without bad faith humans will forever be living in an uncertain world, due to
the ambiguous concept proposed by Sartre, enduring a permanent state of
anxiety, which over a period of time would become exhausting and debilitating.
The notion of good faith is unavailing due to the fact that it is impossible to
give as coherent account of good faith. Pursuing good faith is like running
around in circle and not getting anywhere. When we try to pursue good faith, it
leads to playing the game of good faith which puts one in the position of bad
faith. It seems that our society and our responsibilities that comes with
social roles keeps us tied in Bad Faith. 
In effect, Bad Faith enables humans to deal with what can be coped with
at that particular point in time, until a time arises when they can face other
possibilities or an alternative interpretation of reality and act upon that
instead-this is considered bad faith too (so we will forever be living in bad
faith). Ultimately, as a being for-itself, human consists of intentional
consciousness that has the capacity to choose; as such, it would be
contradictory for there to be objective rules or laws governing freedom, such
as the radical Bad Faith. Therefore,
humans choose bad faith out of an act of necessity in order to survive human
existence and social nature.

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