Current literature about instructional leadership falls into four broad areas:
First, prescriptive modela describe instructional leadership as the integration of the tasks of direct assistance to the teachers, group development, staff development, curriculum development, and action research Glickman (1985) as a democratic, developmental and transformational activity base on equality and growth Gordon (1997) as an enquiry oriented endeavour that encourages teacher voice Reitzug and Cross (1993). Second, studies of isntructinal leadership though few in number Short (1995) include exploratory studoes of indirect effects of principal-teacher instructional conferences and beghaviours such as the effects of monitoring sudents progress Blasé and Blasé (1996). Third, Studies oof direct effects of principal behaviours on tecahers and classroom instruction Sheppards (1996) synthesises of research demonstrating therelationship between certain principal behaviours and teacher commitment, involvement and indication. Fourth, studies of direct and indirect effects on students achievement include Hallinger and Hecks (1996a 1996b) review of studies investigating the principals role eg. use of constructs such as participative leadership and decentralised decision making in schools effectiveness.
Despite such research, the relationship amonmg instructional l;eadership, teaching and even student achievement have not been adequately studied Leithwood et. al., (1995). In fact, based on a review of the journal of curriculum and supervision, Short (1995) has called for more research into the effects of leader behaviour, the relationbship of instructyional leadership to teaching, instructional leaders characteristics and conditions necessary for effective instructional ledership.