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Dars, et al; (2014). To evaluate the effect of Body Mass Index and nutritional
status on the menstrual cycle in adolescent girls. Four hundred one adolescent
girls were selected from 5 schools in Hyderabad. The data
was collected by trained medical undergraduate and postgraduates by
interviewing adolescent school girls using a pre-tested questionnaire. BMI was
calculated using the formula: BMI (kg/m2) = Weight (kg) / Height 2 (m2). HB was
estimated by Sahlis method using a haemoglobinometer. Data was analyzed using
SPSS 11.0. Total 305 girls 76% normal menstrual cycle, 28 girls 7 % had
frequent periods, 52 girls 13% had infrequent periods and 16 girls 4% of the
girls had totally irregular cycles. 305 girls 76% of girls had a normal
menstrual flow, 68 girls 17% had heavy flow and 28girls 7% had scanty flow. 152
girls 38% of girls complained of premenstrual symptoms. 231 girls 60% were
clinically anemic. 277 girls 69% had a BMI between 18.5 – 24.9 kg/m2. One
hundred and eight 27% were underweight girls with a BMI of 14 – 18.49kg/m2,
sixteen 4% were overweight with BMI 25 – 29.99 kg/m2. A statistically
significant relationship was found between BMI and social class (P<0.001) and BMI and menstrual cycle P<0.001).The study concludes that nutritional deficiency diseases in the girls. Out of the 401 girls were checked, 231 girls were found to be anemic. Majority of the girls (84%) had a normal menstrual pattern, normal BMI and attained menarche before the age of 16. Overweight girls had infrequent periods. COBB, et al: (2002). To examine the relationships between disordered eating, menstrual irregularity, and low bone mineral density (BMD) in young female runners. Subjects were 91 competitive female distance runners aged 18–26 yr. Disordered eating was measured by the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI). BMD was measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. EDI (highest quartile) was associated with amenorrhea. amenorrhea runners had lower BMD than eumenorrhea runners at the spine 5%, hip 6%, and whole body 3%, even after accounting for weight, percent body fat, EDI score, and age at menarche. Eumenorrhea runners with elevated EDI scores had lower BMD than eumenorrhea runners with normal EDI scores at the spine 11%, with trends at the hip 5%, and whole body 5%, after adjusting for differences in weight and percent body fat. Runners with both of EDI score and amenorrhea had no further reduction in BMD than runners with only one of these risk factors. In young competitive female distance runners, disordered eating is strongly related to menstrual irregularity, menstrual irregularity is associated with low BMD, and disordered eating is associated with low BMD in the absence of menstrual irregularity. Nascimento, et al; (2016). The objective of the present study is to compare the nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult. In a before and after quasi-experimental clinical study, 32 athletes (21 adults, age range 20–32 years; 11 adolescents, age range: 12–19 years) participated in a nutritional counselling an interval of 45 to 60 days. The athlete's eating behaviour, body composition and nutrition knowledge were evaluated. Both groups increased lean body mass and nutritional knowledge. This is the first study to evaluate and compare the effect of a nutritional intervention between adolescent and adult athlete's body composition, eating behaviour and nutritional knowledge. The nutritional counselling has been changes on the athlete's eating behaviour, nutritional knowledge and body composition; however, some healthy changes were only experienced by adolescents, especially in the frequency of meals and the intake of sweets.   Homai, et al; (2014).   The aims of the study to comparing the menarche age, menstrual regularity, dysmenorrhea and analgesic consumption among athletic and non-athletic students at the universities of Tabriz. 2010 on 360 girl students in 18-28 years old majoring in medicine and non-medicine at the universities of Tabriz. Samples were chosen selectively and completed the questionnaires, visual analogue scale (VAS), sport and menstrual record. The data were analyzed by SPSS 16 statistical software via descriptive and inferential statistical tests (Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square). P<0.05 was considered as significant. The menarche age (P=0.001) and menstrual disorder (P=0.026) had significant difference. The frequency of dysmenorrhea in athletic and non-athletic group did not have significant statistical difference (P=0.39) while the analgesic consumption was significantly lower in the athletic group (P=0.001).  This study showed that sport can improve dysmenorrhea and decrease the need for analgesic for improving the dysmenorrhea among the people. it is vary necessary to pay more attention to nutrition which is one of the important reasons of delayed menarche and menstrual disorder. Ozbar, et al; (2016). The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of menstruation cycle on sportswomen performing team sports. In the study,  18-questioned survey to 40 footballer, 40 handball players, 40 volleyball players and 40 basketball players doing sports at a distinguished level being as in total 160 sportswomen related to their menstruation cycle. Frequency and variation analysis is used for the analysis of the data. Menstruation beginning ages successively 13.02 years, 13.05 years, 13.04 years, and 13.66 years. Athletes normally there are an irregularity with menstruation at a rate of 19.4 percent. 10% of athletes used drug during sports event, 8.8 % menstruation cycle is painful, 35.6 % is painless, and 55.6 % is sometimes experienced painful. And menstruation 78.1 % of athletes stated feeling themselves well the pre-menstruation phase 10.1 %.  During the menstruation phase 19.9 % of athletes stated that their performance is the same, 2.5 % stated that better. It is concluded that menstruation cycle does not affect the performance of the athletes taking part in the study. Karout, (2015). A comparative study of the conducted Knowledge and beliefs regarding menstruation among Saudi nursing students towards menstruation. A cross sectional survey was conducted, in nursing college in Al Khobar city at Eastern province in Saudi, all 400 female students age 18-20 years old. The data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The collected data from the filled Questionnaire was analyzed using SPSS version 16. The results of this study that the girls in Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia were unaware of the information relating to menstruation. a significant relationship was found between the marital status, academic year and the score of knowledge and beliefs but not with age. Although the source of information among the majority of the participants was derived from their mother, those who had good knowledge were the participants who belonged to the above 3rd academic year. In conclusion, it is essential to emphasize the importance of compulsory reproductive health education from an early age to help adolescent girls manage menstrual symptoms and increase their awareness; this could be achieved by adding a course of reproductive health course beginning at the intermediate school level. Sapkota, et al; (2013). The study was conducted in the Knowledge and practices regarding menstruation among school going adolescents of rural Nepal and  sixty-one female adolescents of Shree Himali Secondary School, Panchkanya, Sunsari, Total 61 students from the age group 10 to 19 years and those who already had menarche were included in the study.  This study was done to assess the knowledge and practices regarding menstruation among school going adolescents. Descriptive statistics like frequency, mean, standard deviation and percentage were used. Data were entered into Microsoft Excel and then transferred to Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 20.0 version It was found that 36.1% correctly reported about menstruation where most common informant was mother (39.3%). Dysmenorrhoea was the commonest problem faced during menstruation (78.7%). More than half of respondents (54.1%) used sanitary pads and frequency of changing pads twice a day was highest (50.8%). Initial reaction was of fear/apprehension at menarche by 36.1% of girls whereas 44.3% perceived it as an expectant process. Traditional beliefs regarding menstruation still persist and menstrual hygiene among the adolescents was found to be unsatisfactory. It highlights the need of targeted interventions to raise awareness and provision of family health education package to all girls. Menstrual hygiene is an issue that needs to be addressed at all levels. Adhikari, et al; (2007).  The study comprises adolescent girls of age group 13-15 years in 3 schools of Shivanagar and Patihani village development committees of Chitwan district. There were 150 young girls involved in this study Altogether 27 questions were asked to each of them. We found that they were not properly maintaining the menstrual hygiene. Only 6.0% of girls knew that menstruation is a physiologic process, 36.7% knew that it is caused by hormones. 94 % of them use the pads during the period but only 11.3% dispose it. Overall knowledge and practice were 40.6% and 12.9% respectively. Although knowledge was better than practice, both were not satisfactory. So, the girls should be educated about the process and significance of menstruation, use of proper pads or absorbents and its proper disposal. This can be achieved by giving them proper training and health education (by teachers, family members, health educators, and media) so that there won't be any misconception to the adolescent girls regarding menstrual hygiene. Said & Mettwaly. (2017). The aim of this study was to improve life style among nursing students regarding menstrual disorders through an educational training program. The study was conducted at Faculty of Nursing, Benha University age from 18 to 25 years. A total sample of 84 girl was suffered from menstrual disorder. Pre and post intervention was utilized revealed that 89.20% of girls had poor knowledge before training program. 95.20% of them had good knowledge after training program. 86.9% nursing students didn't follow healthy life style before training program.  The implementation of an educational training program was effective and significantly improved nursing student's life style toward menstrual disorders As well as further research can be built on the results of this study in nutritional habits and healthy physical activity among all students at the faculties for effective management of menstrual disorders can be done.   P, Chapman et al;(1997) The purpose of this study is to evaluate nutrition knowledge among female adolescent high school form varsity football teams of the Baseline League of Southern California. A total number of 72 athletes from 18 teams were randomly divided into two groups, control group and experimental group. Only the experimental group received nutrition education. Dietary habits of the female athletes were studied through a pre- and post- 24-hour recall. The comparison of the study is both groups showed no significant difference in level of nutrition knowledge. The post test scores obtained after that nutrition education level a significant difference in the experimental group. There was no significant improvement in dietary intake and food choices due to the limited duration of the study.

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