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Exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the surface of the cell is a  general and early marker of apoptosis. AnnexinV-FITC /PI double staining method confirmed apoptosis of KG1a treated-cells. The cells in the lower left quarter (Annx? /PI?) show viable cells, in the lower right quarter (Annx+ /PI-) show early apoptotic cells, in the upper left quarter (Annx- /PI-) show necrotic cells and in the up­per right quarter (Annx+ /PI+) show late apoptotic cells. Flow cyto­metric analysis revealed that the apoptotic cell percent­age in the control cells from 0.17% increased to 69.31% after 72 h of treatment (Fig. 4C). These results detected the occurrence of apoptosis in KG1a treated-cells.

ROS evaluation

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Recent studies showed that chemotherapy agents can induce apoptosis in malignant cells using the increase in ROS level or decrease in ROS scavenging potency20. To assay ROS generation by treated KG1a myeloid cells with the 4 -HBTC, we evaluated intracellular peroxide levels using DCFH-DA staining. The KG1a cells were treated with 100 ?M of 4 -HBTC for 24-72 h. Then, cells incubated with DCFH-DA and the level of cellular ROS was measured by flow cytometry. As shown in Figure 4B, 4 -HBTC (30 ?M) enhanced ROS generation 23.82% and 36.03% after 48 and 72 h treatment, respectively, in compared to control cells.

Evaluation of stress oxidative parameters

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In order to detect the effect of 4 -HBTC on the cellular redox status in the Leukemia stem cells, antioxidant defense system capabilities were evaluated according to appropriate methods reported in materials and methods. SOD and CAT play the essential role in the cellular antioxidant defense system. The activities of these enzymes (IU/mg of protein) in KG1a cells line were enhanced notably in 4 -HBTC treated cells for 24 h compared to controls (P

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