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Globalization has been defining feature of the
international community in the recent years. Governments have responded to
globalization by pursuing cooperation with each other’s in order to address
problems that they cannot solve alone. However, International cooperation has
been, to a certain degree, determined through regional proximity since mutual
co-operation between different entities in neighboring territories is easier. The
Mediterranean, for example therefore, has always been an area of natural interest
for cooperation between the different countries on its shores. Historically,
the Mediterranean had been cradle of the of very first ancient civilizations in
human history such as the Mesopotamians, the ancient Egyptians, the ancient
Greeks, Romans, Phoenicians, Berbers and many others. It is  also the birthplace of the three monotheistic
and the most influential global religions, namely, Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The Mediterranean region consist of  the countries/states that borders the Mediterranean
Sea including Portugal, It offers favorable environmental conditions, such as
climate, biological diversity and natural resources as for many centuries,
different people from faraway lands have chosen its shores to settle. According
to GRID-Arendal, the Mediterranean Sea is the third
largest sea on Earth and the first  of
the semi-enclosed European seas. It is surrounded by 18 countries and has
shores on three continents, namely Africa, Asia and Europe.
The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1.5 km though more than 20 per
cent of the total area is covered by water less than 200 m deep. The sea
consists of two major basins, the eastern and the western. There are also
smaller regional seas within the Mediterranean: the Ligurian, Tyrrhenian,
Adriatic and Aegean seas. It is linked to the Atlantic by the Strait of
Gibraltar, with the Black Sea and Sea of Azov by the Dardanelles, the Sea of
Marmara and the Bosporus, and with the Red Sea by the Suez Canal. The
Mediterranean is also a sea of communication and trade, as well as cradle of democracy,
the welfare state and the most important periods of freedom that humanity has
ever enjoyed. The region includes the Northern countries, namely Albania,
Bosnia- Herzegovina, Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Malta, Serbia-Montenegro,
Slovenia, Spain; and the South-Eastern countries, namely: Algeria, Cyprus,
Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, Morocco, Libya, Palestinian Authority, Syria, Tunisia,
and Turkey. The countries of the Mediterranean region cover 8,759 million
km²  with a total number of population
that grew from 276 million in 1970 to 412 million in 2000 (a 1,35 % increase
per year) and to 466 million in 2010 and 
it is predicted to reach 529 million by 2025 (Grida.no, 2017)

         It is the cultural dynamics of all the
civilizations that had existed along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea that
gave birth to writing, sciences, architecture, law, languages and education. Within
the dynamics of international relations, the region represents a geopolitical
as well as geo-economics region with typical economic, political, cultural and
social characteristics. Such a strategic importance of the Mediterranean region
affects security issues and mutual coexistence of the different countries in
the region. Today
there is a significant difference between the northern and southern
Mediterranean countries and this difference has its roots in history. It is
this same history that led to the description of the Mediterranean as a melting
pot of cultures and civilizations. The most ambitious and developed Mediterranean initiative, the
Euro-Mediterranean Partnership was the culmination of a decades-long series of
European efforts to strengthen cooperation with the southern Mediterranean
countries of the. These efforts have been shaped up and operated during the
last twenty one years. The first contacts between the then European Economic
Community (EEC) and the non-EEC Mediterranean countries began in the 1960s and
were mainly limited to trade relations which 
had experienced a decline in the 1970s. The links between the parties in
the region were extended in the 1980s, taking the form of association and
cooperation agreements signed with various Mediterranean countries until; the
Euro-Mediterranean policy was introduced in 1990. However this new initiative
did not survive for long, mainly due to the existing and continuing trade
restrictions in the economic sphere, the failure of the Arab-Maghreb Union and
the ongoing Arab-Israeli.  As a result,
the Mediterranean policy was reconstructed and concludes with the Barcelona Process
in 1995. The established framework of the Barcelona Process was based on three
major baskets which are:

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