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MACHINING

 

INTRODUCTION:

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Machining is
a process through which material is cut, finished and many other side processes
which are required for attaining specific piece at machine shop. We can attain
any desired workpiece using different machinery and tools at machine shop.

There are many different machines
with different tools. Some commonly used machines at machine shop are:

 

1.     
LATHE MACHINE:

Lathe is a heavy mechanical machine used for multiple purposes like
cutting, facing, threading, knurling, drilling, grooving, turning, and filing
(finishing). In this machine tool is moveable while workpiece is kept
stationary while rotating axially.

 

 

 

 

 

At lathe
machine different tools are used for different purposes, some are shown in the
figure below:

 

 

2.     
DRILL MACHIINE:

It is a
heavy drill machine of higher power used for drilling, boring (enlarging
drilled holes), and reaming (fining of bored holes).

It too have different tools or drill
bits for different sizes of holes and different processes. Some of them are:

 

3.     
MILLLING MACHINE:

It is a machine used for cutting, turning, knurling,
threading, and taper turning. It has rotatory cutters for cutting or removing
excess material. The machine looks like:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.     
GRINDING MACHINE:

It is machine used to grind different solids using wheels. It
looks like:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXPLANATION:

At machine shop, we used lathe
machine to perform all steps to achieve column container. Different steps with
different tools were implemented to get this sort of container to get fixed on
forged base. The workpiece we prepared looked like:

 

 

 

 

 

 

To get this workpiece, firstly we need metal on which we have to achieve
this; as in our shop we used mild steel rod and implemented following steps on
lathe machine:

                      
I.           
PARTING:

Parting of the rod according to the length required for
column container, for this purpose the tool is placed horizontally at the point
to be parted.

                    
II.           
FACING:

By slightly tilting tool and adjusting it to the center of
rod (workpiece) face, then turn power on of machine till the point smooth
surface is attained.

 

 

                  
III.           
TURNING:

To reduce the diameter of its face turning is implemented.
First, we have to mark up to required point as in our case we did till 4mm, by
using Vernier calipers; then adjust the tool to the point and turn on the
machine, and stop it once we get desired length keep checking the length by
calipers. Also for 1mm decrease we get to move 20 divisions of cross slide. We
decreased our workpiece from 22mmm to 18mm.To get desired 18mm the process is
repeated 8 times as:

20 divisions=1mm

 

                 
IV.           
TAPER TURNING:

For achieving slope on workpiece
taper turning is done. First we need to find taper angle by suing the formula:

Taper angle=D-d/length x144/5

After setting taper angle
the dial is rotated, till set angle is achieved and curve is made. The taper of
our workpiece was 9.12?.

 

                   
V.           
THREADING:

The speed of machine is decreased using
steering on the side; machine is shifted from neutral to auto mod. Then the
threads per millimeter are set accordingly as according to our conditions it
was 1.5TPM (threads per millimeter),
threads are then sharpened on workpiece; then the machine is set back to
neutral mode.

 

                 
VI.           
GROOVING:

It is to form a narrow cavity, depth or
cylinder in accordance to the tool used the cavity is created inside as a
groove.

 

               
VII.           
KNURLING:

It is to create a pattern on rod for gripping.
It is made by using a special toolfor pattern; and rotating the steering anti
clockwise in between two grooves. The length of tool while knurling is to be
set carefully. We used tool of 5mm
for grooves of 15mm.

 

             
VIII.           
STEP TURNING:

By using tool at an angle for creating a step,
which help it fix on forged piece. The step was moved from 22mm to 19mm.

 

                  
IX.           
FINISHING:

Filing is done
horizontally and vertically, to give the workpiece a finished look.

 

PRECAUTIONS:

1.      Always wear aprons for preventing
clothes from tearing up.

2.      Wear goggles to prevent eye damage
from chips of material being machined.

3.     Use machines carefully while being
alert.

 

 

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