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Official ResponsibilitiesFirst RefereeStands on the referee stand and controls the play of the entire game. Whatever issues arise during the game, the first referee determines the call and the has the final say. Once a call has been made, no player or other referee can argue the call, although a formal protest can be placed with the scorer.Before the match begins, the first referee has to  inspects the equipment and the players uniforms. Also has to do the coin toss for selecting who starts the gameThroughout the match, the first referee makes calls regarding faults and scoring issues. Second Referee Assist’s the first referee throughout the game. If the first referee can’t finish her/his duties, the second referee may take the place of the first referee.Stands next to the post opposite the first referee. Helps the first referee with determining faults throughout the gameIn charge of all substitutions, timeouts and the actions of the scorer’s table.  ScorersKeeps track of the score throughout the volleyball match Before the game begins the scorer notes the starting lineup of each team and notifies the referees if the lineup wasn’t received on timeIf a dispute regarding the score happens, the scorer uses a buzzer to notify the first and second referees When a substitution request arises, the scorer notifies the referees.Line JudgesAt least 2, and as many as 4, line judges monitor each game Stand at the corners of the court watching the lines to indicate whether a ball in play falls in or out of the court if its out he notifies the refereeIf a server steps on the line during a serve, the line judge watching the given line notifies the referees using a flag       How to comply with rulesRule 1Volleyball is played between 2 teams of six on an indoor court. Each team is allowed three touches to get the ball back over the net to their opposing team, however the same player can’t touch the ball consecutively. The impact of this rule on the game is so that the game can move quickly and not be slow and boring because if you were allowed an unlimited amount of touches then it will take too long however a max of 3 touches makes you work and think quick which is why it’s very entertaining to spectators.In the picture down below the referee awarded the red team a point as the blue team took 5 touches to get the ball over the net.The referee made the right call as it is illegal if you take more than 3 touches to get the ball over the net (block does not count as a touch). As the referee made the right call it means that the game can go on smoothly however if he made the wrong call it would be unfair and it would mean that the team that got to take extra touches would have an advantage as they will be able to have longer to attack with a planned out tactic.         Rule 2In volleyball you are allowed a maximum of 6 players on the court for your team. To make sure you comply with these rules you should always count how many players you have on the court before the game starts as if you have less than the maximum you would be putting your team at a disadvantage. If you put more players than the maximum of 6 on your half of the court the referee will tell a player to get off. This is how this rule is complied. In this picture the ref is seen giving a player from the Ecuador team a red card as they already had 6 players on the court but he ran on and joined in. This was illegal play and the referee made the right decision as it would be unfair to play 6v7.The referee made the right decision and due to this the match was able to go on smoothly without any interference. If the referee did not make the right call it would mean that the opposition with 6 players would be at a huge disadvantage as they would not be able to block all the shots and would always have 1 more extra opponent to be wary of. Rule 3In volleyball the point of playing is so that the ball hits your opponent’s side of the court and you try to avoid the ball hitting your side of the court. To comply with the rule of not letting the ball touch your side of the court is to defend properly. You can do this by making sure your blockers do their job successfully and that you receive your opponent’s shots comfortable so that you have a chance to attack and receive a point for your team.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3jMO142WMBI0.33-0.47In this clip the referee gave the point to the serving team as he thought the opposition did not keep the ball of the floor however the player actually got to the ball and he did not let it touch the floor.The referee was not right as he gave a point when it was not actually a point.The impact this has is that the team that got denied that the ball was still in play will not want to trust the referee as his actions will be seen as unfair.The impact that it has on the game is that it gets the opposition closer to winning a set which could win them the match. However if the referee had made the right decision it would have kept the game moving slowly without any arguments and would’ve kept if fair.How to comply with regulationsIn volleyball some of the things that have to be regulated is the ball, the size of the court and the size of the net.BallThe ball in volleyball has to have a diameter of  21.3 cm long and must have a weight of 280g.the ball is a sphere shape and if this shape is altered it has to be changed for a new ball. The ball is regulated because it would be unfair if the ball weighed less or more as players would not be used to it or a team might be more used to it than others which could cause an unfair advantage and it would mean that the performers would not be able to perform at optimum level. Teams that do more weight training would be able to adapt to a heavy ball compared to a team that does no weight training at all. This is why the ball is checked at the beginning of the game by the referee so that the match can be fair. In the olympics the ball also has the same size as listed above. The impact this has is that all players are adjusted to ball whereas if the ball changed players might not be able to play at full potential as they would not be used to it.Size of courtThe size of the court in volleyball has to be 18 by 9 meters. The court is divided by a net in the middle of the court. The reason the length of the court has to be regulated is because if the pitch was too big or too small it could give advantages to either of the teams. An example would be if the court was too big and one team did more aerobic endurance than the other it would mean that they would be able to perform better than the opposing team as they would not get as tired as quickly.The size of the court is checked before every game. The size of the court is the same for all official handball games wether in the olympics or not.   Net The net in the middle of the court has to be 2.43m in the mens games and 2.24m in the women’s.The reason the referee’s check the net before the game is to make the game  fair as if the net was too high it could give an unfair advantage to one of the teams.An example of this would be if a team did more aerobic endurance than the other it would give them an advantage as they would be able to jump higher. When it is not at the olympics the net can very height due to the player’s age and the league for example in the Volleyball England Under 16 Championship the height for boys was 2.35m and the girls was 2.24m.    Unwritten rulesUnwritten rules are rules that do not have to be followed however they could make you play better and they could make your opponents respect you.”Don’t make a mistake” is a rule that volleyball players try to follow. However volleyball is played by points and whoever gets the points needed to win the match will win. In volleyball you cannot win every ball so the rule is their so that players make sure that they do not waste a ball and try to make the best move or play they can to insure that they win the match or set.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ULNfwqsc1.25 to 1.45From this clip you can clearly see that after one of the opposing players got the point that he did a very rude taunt that was not very respectful. This is an unwritten rule as after you score a point or do something well you are entitled to celebrate however if you do something rude it is not very respectful which is why in the clip the opposing team’s players got angry as it is not an action that should have been displayed.EtiquetteYou should never kick a volleyball unless necessary as it alters the dimensions of the ball which needs to be a perfect sphere to react best in game play. Repeated kicking or just one very hard kick can  start a chain reaction by compromising even the smallest part of the physical integrity that holds it together.You should shake the opponent’s hands after the game so that you show appreciation for coming on the court and playing and this also shows respect. You should do this even if you lose or win as it’s a very respectful thing to do. The impact this has is that it shows that the players are fair and have shown gratitude to each other.When a player comes of injured you should clap as he is being carried or walking off as this shows respect and no one should have to go through injury as it could mean never playing again.SkillsDiscrete skill-Distinct and easily determined beginning and end points An example would be Serving in Volleyball. To do this successfully the skills you would need is good eye coordination to hit the ball precisely and you would need good aim to get the ball over the net and the land in the opponent’s side of the court.Serial skills-A series of discrete actions linked together Attacking skills in volleyball would be actions such as spiking Skills, Techniques and TacticsPassing/SettingGood skillA good set will be if it allows the spiker to hit the ball with 100% power/accuracy to get their team the point. A good pass/set will make the spiker hit the ball with confidence and will not have to struggle to hit the ball.The difficulty of applying it in a game would be if the setter has to receive a very fast ball as this might alter his accuracy to the spiker which could result in a failed attack. To set the ball successfully you should Put your elbows highMake a diamond shape with your hands using your thumb and index fingerBend kneesQuick catch and push it with your fingersExtend your arms to generate powerBad skillA bad set would be if the setter does not pass the ball to his setter correctly. This could be due to if the ball is to fast to control or either too high or too low to hit. These would be bad passes as the striker would find it difficult to hit the ball.Isolated skillAn isolated skill for passing would be doing drills such as trying to hit markers on a wall.This will improve accuracyConditioned practiceTrying to hit moving targets so that you improve your aimSkill in gameThis skill in game can be quite hard if you have not practiced with you spiker a lot because you need to get used to their run and the way they approach the ball. If you are not able to sync the pass with the spikers run the end results will not be as good.BlockingGood skillA good block will either deflect the opponents shot back into their own court and land on their side so your team gets the point and also if the block slows down the speed of your opponents shot so that it is easier for your team to receive the ball. When blocking to achieve it well you should always jump as high as you can when the opponent is about to shoot and you should raise your hands up high spreading your fingers so it is easier to block the shotBad skillIf you close your eyes while blocking this will be bad as you will not be able to see where the opponent is going to shoot. You should also time your jump to the opponents shot because if you jump to early or too late there’s a chance that the opposing team will score an easy point.Isolated skillAn isolated skill for blocking would be doing 2v1 drills with a spiker and trying to block his shotsConditioned practiceSkill in gameSpikingGood skillA good spike would be if it lands in your opponents half or the shot is on target. The spike will be good if the opponent struggles to return the ball as it would mean the team would be panicking which could result in your team getting the point if it hits their side of the courtBad skillA bad spike can be considered as many things.If the ball is on target however if the opponents receive the shot easily it could be considered bad as this would be an useless attack. If the spike gets blocked it will be bad as it did not achieve its objective of getting a point for its team.Isolated skillConditioned practiceSkill in gameDiggingGood skillDigging the ball is a skill that mostly  the libero uses at it is very defensive. A good way of digging the ball is to stand balanced with your knees bent so that you are close to the ground and ready to react when the opponent spikes the ball and your hands out in front of you.If the ball is coming straight at you , you should use both hands to control the ball better however if the shot is unpredictable you can try to use one of your fists to keep the ball up in the air. A good dig will keep the o opponents shot under control and will allow your team to keep up the ball calmly. The difficulty of applying this in the game is if the shot is too far from you as you might not be able to reach it in time.Bad skillA bad dig will make it hard for your team to get the ball under control which means that it could alter the potential of them having a successful attack on the opposition. A bad dig will be if you are not ready to receive the ball or if you are not ready to dive as the ball touch the floor before you get there.Isolated skillConditioned practiceSkill in game ServingGood skillA good serve will make it difficult for your opponent to keep the ball under control. A good serve will have accuracy because if you serve it and the ball does not land in your opponent’s half of the court the will get the point. A successful serve should also have a bit of power so that it is harder for your opponent’s to receive the ball.Bad skillIsolated skillConditioned practiceSkill in game 

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