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PARUL DAMAHE                                                               RUCHI

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ECE,IIIT Naya Raipur                                                           ECE
,IIIT Naya Raipur



Abstract—Today,the society is going green by making use of various environment
friendly mehods, especially in the field of technology by making use of lower
energy demand equipments.Reduction of Energy consumption is the prime target of
semiconductor technology today.Recently,successful manufacturing of
microcontrollers consuming very low power and producing sufficient amount of
energy is done.Latest technological advancements leas the society to go
greener.Various initiatives are being taken to pave the Path to a Green and
Self-Powered Internet of Things.Hence,overall the world is going greener


The use
of eco-friendly methods is consistently increasing and various green
initiatives have come to picture like making use of eco-friendly white goods,
solar power generation and making use of green cars,piezoelectricity. with the
aim to lower co2 emission for developing a low carbon society,use of solar
,wind and hydro energy has significantly increased. there is a huge demand of
green products like introduction of fuel efficient lower body weight cars, as well as rapid introduction of
electric vehicles (EVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs).Hence,today the
world wants to  evolve greener with green



We have
resources but they are not sufficient to

meet our present plus future requirements.And if we consider
any disaster as a case,for example the huge

earthquake and tsunami hit Japan on March 11, 2011,
had caused extensive damage and specially damage to many electronics
companies in the north east of the country. After that incident electric
power shortage became  a very serious
problem leading to even scheduled blackouts in some cases. So, one major lesson
is to attain more reliable, safer and more greener resources and proper
maintenance of these resources.

US,Americans purchased 200 million energy star qualified products in 2010 total
of cost 3.5 billion  showing
clearly,increasing demand of lower-energy 
and eco-friendly products.Also,EU 20-20-20 is announced by European
commission having following prime target 1)
Reduction of CO2 emissions by 20%, 2) Reduction of total energy use by 20%,
3)Aim to reach upto 20% of renewable energy use by the year 2020.


Microelectronics contribute largely to save power,semiconductor
technology helps to reduce energy consumption by energy monitoring and
judiciously using energy resources.Major contribution is of semiconductor
device called microcontroller.
Earlier, microcomputers were introduced to the
market , to be used in electronic calculators, and in electro-mechanical
controllers like cash registers, white goods, and consumer electronics. Then
the  microcomputers  developed and were used as: 
Microprocessors (MPU), for personal computers and servers, and Microcontrollers
(MCUs) for embedded controls.

Majorly this MCUs have gained so much
importance due to numerous advantages such as ease of use, availability of a
wide range and the one major factor for their increased importance is that
everything is available on a tiny piece of silicon i.e. self containment, other
crucial factors include high performance and low-cost.MCUs due to their
widespread applications is evolving continuously to save power. Manufacturing of MCU s is increasing day by day.Every
second about 400 million MCUs are shipped.


A major part of
energy consumption is covered by the use of motors.For example-refrigerators, dishwashers, washing
machines etc each of them involve use of motors.MCUs can effectively control
these motors to minimize powerconsumption.MCUs nowadays are capable of
performing motor controlling tasks which includes vector control and inverter
control for 3-phase motor.For example 30% of total power is saved in
 latest air-conditioner using a high performance MCU .

Today,another major problem is CO2
emission in automotive industry.MCUs is key device to reduce CO2 emission.It is
evolving day by day which includes  higher frequency operation ,
functional safety lower-power operation.

Nowadays ,HEVS
and EVs are spreading rapidly across the world contributing to reduction of CO2
emission,but they consume large
amounts of electricity when running on the motor.Hence,they carry large
capacity battery acting as a generator.MCUs perform function of both regeneration control and
 motor control .recent MCUs have high speed CPUs,timers and AD

Thus MCUs saves
a lot power through their wide range applications.



MCUs are also used in the marketplace, to
connect various devices on a network for cooperative control of the whole
system. For example, the 50 to 100 MCUs in a car are connected using several
levels of in-vehicle networking .
For each of this levels a specific protocol
applies: CAN (Controller Area Network) is an asynchronous in-vehicle serial-bus
network to connect different control units such as motors in chassis control,
car instrumentation, brake control, HVAC, power doors, seatbelts, and so on.
The CAN protocol for multi-master communication was designed for automotive
applications for data rates up to 1Mb/s.

LIN (Local Interconnect Network) is a low-speed
single-master multi-slave network which was developed as a sub-network of CAN
to connect sensors, actuators, and small motors. This has  rain sensors,
light sensors, wipers, mirrors, window lifts, door locks, switches, and many
more. The LIN ensures a cost-effective networking solution by making use of
low-end MCU to support the LIN protocol.
The FlexRay communication system is other level
of network which is a time-deterministic communication protocol for dates rates
up to 10Mb/s for advanced in-vehicle control application. The FlexRay
communication protocol is designed for electromechanical systems (X-by-wire)
which replace hydraulic components and also provide system-wide redundancy to meet
critical requirement for safety system such as brake-by-wire.
Currently, Ethernet protocols have begun to be
used in vehicle networks. For example, they are being used as a diagnostic
protocol for engine, chassis, and body-electronic connections. Although
Ethernet protocol is simple and high speed, and has been widely adopted for
computer networks, current standard Ethernet is not suitable for the
transmission of real-time audio and video such as need by in-vehicle network,
since Ethernet frames are subject to unpredictable frame loss and unacceptable
latency variation.It has produced the Ethernet AVB1.0 standard which is to be
adopted for vehicle multimedia as well as camera networks.
Power-line-communication as well as
wireless-communication technologies are implemented in smart meters to connect
to networks. Various  network communication standards are being deployed
in each country, but all such networks share an important property. While MCUs
silently and continuously monitor the power consumption at home, the
communication node will remain in a stand-by state for majority of the time,
and will only wake-up and transmit data intermittently at some times. This mode
of communication is too different from that which is commonly used in computer
networks. Correspondingly, a low power flash-based MCU is perfect to measure
power. But, since there are many network standards in each region, network
function is generally on a separate chip from the MCU. In this case, a
combination of an MCU and a communications chip becomes the heart of the
network controller.

innovation of control technology is needed. The amount of control data will
increase because of availability of higher accuracy time resolution. Also,
sensor features must be improvised to include pressure, temperature, flow rate,
velocity etc, in an integrated system to handle much more data. Also, in order
to control all this data by networks, higher real-time performance capability
is needed. Furthermore, because of the need to correlate data from various
types of data sources, much more sophisticated ways of control are to be


In 2010, intermittent operation emerged as main
approach for reducing power consumption ,enabling radio sensor nodes with
energy harvesting to reduce dependence of sensors on a primary power
source.But,it was not 100 percent successful.So, we must develop further
technologies to reduce node power requirement. Today,key to reduce power
consumption is collaboration from device to system.

Recent example is Renesas  aiming to produce several low-power
innovations: 1) ultra-low-power one-cycle wake-up clock generators as shown in figure with 1%
accuracy to reduce waiting temporally and power dissipation, 2) spatially-controlled and temporally
multiple-power domain technology for logic circuits and SRAMs, and 3) voltage
converters supporting very low-power domains.Hence,by these developments
MCUs  consuming power less than 1?W, with
the possibility of nano watt MCUs (nW-MCUs) can be manufactured.

consumption in wireless communication is also one major issue.Recently,narrow
band OOK modulation radio using very less power are introduced.

Also, energy harvesters are getting attention
due to maintenance free operation like eliminating need to change battery.Due
to high power capability,  photovoltaic and vibration based harvesters are
emerging.Drawback is they work in limited environment ,but it can be overcomed
by advent of ultra-low-power MCU (nW-MCU),as it comprises many kind of
harvesters including ambient radio wave and thermal difference.


In MCU products ,integration of embedded
non volatile memory has become essential for its data security,power and
performance,advantages.Nowadays,  charge-trapping structures such as MONOS
(Metal-SiO2-SiNx-SiO2-Si) comes into application.Due to its defect resistance
nature caused by discrete charge trapping mechanism,high scalability and high
reliability are available to meet huge demands of automotive industry.

MCU with MONOS flash using 40 nm CMOS
technology is currently most advanced product available.

While matching requirements for higher
reliability and lower-power under higher-temperature operations,challenges are
there in MCU technology in utilizing scaled down Soc compatible CMOS.Frequent
power on off scheme,utilizing embedded non volatile memory,can provide effective
solution.Future,system-power strategies are expected to be able to better
employ the strengths of embedded non-volatile memory. 


In future,MCUs are going to be a very
important part, due to its ever increasing range of applications.  In
particular, MCUs will proliferate in finely-meshed networks throughout the
world.Such networked MCUs 
 implementing cooperative control,are called “Smart
Microcontrollers”. They will require a broader range of MCUs.

Flash based MCUs used in leading edge
processes will be the major key for emergence of broader range of MCU
products.Hence,development of MCUs will pave the expressway to sustainable
smart society.



would like to thank Dr.Ramesh Vaddi for giving this golden opportunity to
showcase our talent and enhance our skills.



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