In order to properly arrange the format of the topic, this paper unfolds in three parts.
The first part is introductory in which I will write about the general understanding of the
topic, its background, its historical overview, characteristics and the most important impacts
to history of architecture. In the second part, I will illustrate some examples of ”White
Architecture in 21st century” that have been designed by different architects and at different
places of the world. Moreover, I will discuss the examples regarding the main topic and
integrate it to history of Architecture. The final part will welcome us to briefly sum up and
draw the general and particular issue of the topic.
Definition of the Topic
I want to first start off with definition of the ”Minimalism”. Minimalism is an
art/design movement that started in the 20th century. Minimalism, is a concept not only in
architecture, but also other art and design fields. Today, minimalism is also popular as a
In other words, I can explain of ”Minimalism” is that ; Eating less food is called a
diet. When you’re on diet, you restrict yourself to small amounts of food for medical reasons
or to lose or maintain weight. When architecture is on diet, it is called minimalism.
Minimalist architecture is restricted to fewer elements to achieve the most.White color is
usually preferred on building facades because White color expresses open and neutral.
The sensuality of the solid lines, large windows, sliding doors, metal structures,
which generates large spans and generous ruffles, finishes without unnecessary frills and
the”WHITE” color on floors, walls and ceilings highlight the basic concepts that are evident
in this work; The integration of nature (wind, light, water, vegetation) as elements that bring
us closer to our essence. Geometry and proportion, understood as the contribution of man to
the landscape through the rationalization of forms.1
“Residence in Colombia Displaying a Minimalist Design Approach: GM1 House.” Freshome.com, 21 Mar. 2012,
Figure 1 Residence in Colombia Displaying a
Minimalist Design Approach: GM1 House
Architects: GM Arquitectos
Location :Girardot, Colombia
Project Year : 2011
Figure 2 Residence in Colombia Displaying a
Minimalist Design Approach: GM1 House
The house extends over 3 levels; the entry is on the middle, ground level, where all the
living spaces flow around a courtyard, a sliced circle, a hint of a possible larger courtyard in
an expanded field of scattered architectural objects and events.
White concrete is popular with architects thanks to its pure, uniform appearance,
offering a less brutal alternative to board-marked and raw concrete. It is created by combining
materials with lower iron, chromium and manganese levels.2
“The White House Prahran / Nervegna Reed Architecture PH Architects.” ArchDaily, 28 Mar. 2011,
Figure 3 The White House Prahran / Nervegna
Reed Architecture + PH Architects
? Architects :Nervegna Reed Architecture , ph
? Location : Australia
Figure 4 The White House Prahran /
Nervegna Reed Architecture + PH Architects
French firm ”Antonini Darmon” has completed a social housing block near Paris,
featuring a White Concrete facade surrounded on all sides by rows of arch-fronted
balconies.This building has been built in 2016.
White concrete, implemented in several ways, is the material connection between the
buildings in the project. They are also connected through a common garden, located in the
centre of the Macrolot B5.3
“Despite the central location of the building the second skin also provides privacy, by
preventing visibility of the interior from the outside,” said the architects.”
“Arches Boulogne / Antonini Darmon.” ArchDaily, 13 June 2016, www.archdaily.com/789255/arches-boulogne-antoninidarmon.
Figure 5 Arches Boulogne / Antonini Darmon Architects: Antonini Darmon
Project Year :2016
Figure 6 Arches Boulogne / Antonini Darmon
The project and all it is elements like site wall, even the birch trees are plainly white,
contrasting starkly with it’s gray and muted urban context. Entering the compound must be
like entering another world, with a metaphysical garden that seamlessly transitions into the
interior, a “cloudy” library on the second floor and cavernous bedrooms in the basement. The
project appears remarkably calm and at the same time surprises with distinctly differentiated
Text description provided by the architects. To build a house for a poet. To make a
house for dreaming, living and dying. A house in which to read, to write and to think.We
raised high walls to create a box open to the sky, like a nude, metaphysical garden, with
Architects :Alberto Campo Baeza
Location : Zaragoza, Spain
Project Year :2006
Figure 7 Moliner House / Alberto Campo Baeza
concrete walls and floor. To create an interior world. We dug into the ground to plant leafy
Three levels were established. The highest for dreaming. The garden level for living.
The deepest level for sleeping.The all building (Interior and exterior) are composed of White
The figure 8 which is shown above this is for living, the garden with southern light,
sunlight. A space that is all garden, with transparent walls that bring together inside and
outside. And for sleeping, perhaps dying, the deepest level. The bedrooms below, as if in a
cave. Dreaming, living, dying. The house of the poet.5
Light from the north pours through the glazed walls in the interior cube , reflecting
from the white concrete floors and bouncing on the “galeria white” walls. At the lowest
“Moliner House – Zaragoza Building | Spanish House Design.” e-Architect, 11 July 2017, www.e-architect.co.uk/spain/molinerhouse.
“Moliner House in Spain by Alberto Campo Baeza Architects.” Design Milk, 24 Feb. 2010, design-milk.com/moliner-house-inspain-by-alberto-campo-baeza-architects/.
Figure 8 interior of Moliner House
point.the bedrooms, below ground, as in a cave. At the highest point, the library: a place for
The building shape cleverly articulates urban spaces and emphasizes the surrounding
urban fabric. The facade underlines the idiosyncrasy of the building shape with hexagonal
apertures, smaller on the outside, but tapering on the inside to increase the illusion of
transparency and create a white space filled with light.
The architectural expression of the exterior is found in the interior. From the entrance,
one perceives the entirety of interior volume. The interior organization is of a great clearness:
the various functions are distributed on three levels plus a basement for the movie theatres.7
“Moliner House / Alberto Campo Baeza.” ArchDaily, 28 Mar. 2010, www.archdaily.com/53984/moliner-house-alberto-campobaeza.
“Lons le Saunier Médiathèque & Cinémas: French Library & Cinema.” e-Architect, 4 Mar. 2017, www.earchitect.co.uk/france/lons-le-saunier-building.
Lons le Saunier Mediatheque
Architects :Du Besset-Lyon
Location Lons-le-Saunier, France
Project Year : 2012
Figure 9 Lons le Saunier Mediatheque / du BessetLyon
Museo Internacional del Barroco
This is a meseum which is located in Mexico, This facade will also receive night time
projections of images related to current exhibitions, which also illuminate the museum and
make it stand out from a distance.The structure composed of precast walls and slabs were also
developed. The walls are precast on the exterior and cast in-situ on the interior. The precast
Figure 10 Lons le Saunier Mediatheque /
du Besset-Lyon Architectes
Figure 11 Museo Internacional del
Barroco / Toyo Ito & Associates
Architects :Toyo Ito & Associates
Location : Mexico
Project Year :2015
part, consisting of two panels of 65 mm white concrete joined as a sandwich panel, also acts
as lost formwork whilst simultaneously controlling the final finish8
The exposed White concrete has a bush-hammered texture, making it easy to rectify
any defects to the finishes on site. The walls function as structural load-bearing walls with a
total thickness of 36 cm. (Including the 2 precast concrete elements). The slab is a 70 cm deep
lightweight composite with recycled hollow polyethylene (PET) spheres and semiprefabricated
precast slabs for easy and fast assembly.
As part of the structural strategy, the museum is a single rigid volume, giving the
building earthquake resistant qualities. The foundation transmits vertical loads on the ground
filler compacted soils. The foundation was built as a strip footing with an adjusted depth
according to the requirements of outdoor spaces.
“Museo Internacional del Barroco / Toyo Ito & Associates.” ArchDaily, 24 Apr. 2016,
The inside, cast on site with grey
concrete, merge the pieces
together with the reinforcement,
producing a monolithic wall.
Figure 12 Museo Internacional del
Barroco / Toyo Ito & Associates
As we see in the examples, architects from different part of the world have
successfully collaborated in designing temples at the different locations. While designing this
kind of White buildings. they meliorate in designing a building that would welcome and
embrace everyone. As a result, Architecture in 21st century is a still is a high level of
development,also international understanding of modernism minimalism and classicism has
been employed richly because of understanding of ”White Architecture in 21st Century” . I
also want to point out that in these examples there quotations from some historical buildings,
which may be perceived as Classicism.
Last but not least, integrity of structural design has been mainly shaped by natural
inspiration and implementation of the inspiration is almost flawless