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Scotland is a small country in northern Europe with beautiful sceneries and a rich history. This paper will delve into several things about Scotland including a brief history, its population, and its economic status.While Scotland is currently a part of the United Kingdom with England and Northern Ireland, but it was not always that way.The term “Scots” is applied to all peoples of Scotland. It comes from Scotti, or Scoti, which is an Irish Celtic word that means pirates or raiders. This is what Romans called the raiders from Ireland (Mason and Waldman). The Romans referred to the tribes of Celts and Picts in Scotland as Caledonians (Mason and Waldman). After ninth century CE the kingdom of Alba was formed, uniting the scots and the picts, because of the dominance of the scots the kingdom ended up being called Scotia, and the picts culture and language soon faded away as they were integrated into the dominant scots culture (Mason and Waldman). After a few centuries the kingdom of Scotia expanded to what is now most of the present-day Scotland (Mason and Waldman). Now that Scotland is a part of the United Kingdom along with Northern Ireland and Great Britain the current day scottish people can be considered subjects of Britain, they are still very much culturally different though (Mason and Waldman). In 1707 Scotland signed and Act of Union with England, this would put them into what is now the United Kingdom.”In 1707 a treaty between English and Scottish commissioners was ratified by the English and Scottish parliaments. It created the United Kingdom of Great Britain, abolished the Scottish parliament, and added Scottish members to the House of Lords (16) and House of Commons (45) of England. The act kept separate the two countries’ church establishments and legal systems, but it made provisions to integrate their economies and administrations” (Tompson).The reasons for the union is not entirely known though a number of reasons are suspected, these reason range from the bribery of scottish nobles, to economic reasons. Despite Scotland becoming a part of the United Kingdom over three hundred years ago its culture is not only retained but arguably as strong as it ever was.Map Scotland is located in the British Isles of northern Europe as a part of the United Kingdom. The southern border is shared with England, and Ireland resides across a channel of water to the southwest. The length of mainland Scotland, from north to south, extends roughly 274 miles, or 441 kilometers; while the maximum width of Scotland, from east to west is about 154 miles, or 248 kilometers; the area of Scotland is 30,918 square miles, or 78,770 square kilometers (Simpson and Cameron).Scotland is separated into the following three topographic areas: the Highlands, which are located in the north, the Southern Uplands, and the Midland Valley, which is also called the Central Lowlands (Simpson and Cameron). To the east of Scotland is the North Sea, and to the north and west is the Atlantic Ocean. The Sea of Hebrides is directly west of Scotland as well, as part of the Atlantic Ocean. Scotland is surrounded by several small isles and islands around the mainland coast, as well as the Shetland Islands further north. Scotland is surrounded by many estuaries or firths. These are coastal bodies of water that are partially enclosed with slightly salty water and can have many rivers or streams flow into them. These firths include Moray Firth, Firth of Clyde, Solway Firth, Firth of Forth, Firth of Lorne, and Pentland Firth. Scotland is also home to many lochs, or lakes, the most famous and largest of which is Loch Ness, located in the Highlands. Other lochs include Loch Lomond and Loch Shin. “The Clyde, which flows through Glasgow to the Atlantic Ocean, is Scotland’s chief river, for it provides a major waterway through the industrial heart of the country” (“Scotland”). Because of all the firths and lochs most places in Scotland are a short ways away from water. With Scotland lying so far north many would expect it to have a rather cold climate. However is not the case, as explained by the following:”Scotland lies some 370 to 800 miles (600 to 1,300 km) farther north than the most northerly point in the United States, excluding Alaska. Its climate, however, is moderate because of the tempering influence of the ocean. Except in the high mountains, temperatures average about 35° to 40°F (2° to 4°C) in January and 55° to 60°F (13° to 16°C) in July” (“Scotland”).This more temperate climate results in significantly less snow then one would expect a northern country to have as well. Only the Highlands at the northernmost point is hit with heavy snowfall (Simpson and Cameron). As previously mentioned, the topology of Scotland is separated into three regions including the Highlands, the Central Lowlands, and the Southern Uplands. Each of these regions have a drastically different terrain from the others. The Highlands consist mainly of rounded mountains and include two major mountain ranges, the Northwest Highlands and the Grampian Mountains (Simpson and Cameron). “Throughout the Highlands there are innumerable valleys, called glens where narrow and straths where broad.  The Great Glen, known also as Glen Mor, is a narrow, lake-studded valley stretching from coast to coast” (“Scotland”). The Central Lowlands hold most of Scotland’s people, It consists of rolling land with gentle slopes and many small hills, also almost all of Scotland’s towns and farmland are also situated here, this is due to the fertile soil and large mineral resources (Simpson and Cameron). The Southern Uplands border England and consist of many rounded hills. “Grassy moors, used extensively for grazing, cover much of the land. There are numerous valleys, called dales in this part of Scotland” (“Scotland”). The majority of Scotland’s landscapes are beautiful, the vast mountain ranges of the highlands, the rolling plains of the lowlands, and the vast moors of the uplands.In 2015 Scotland had an estimated population of five million, three hundred seventy three thousand (5,373,000) citizens according to the National Records of Scotland (NRS) (“Scotland’s population swelled by migration”). According to the 2011 Scotland Census, 84 percent of the population is white scottish, 8 percent is white British, 1 percent is white Irish, 1 percent is white polish, 2 percent is other white, 3 percent is Asian or Asian Scottish, and another 1 percent make up all other ethnic groups (“Maps and Charts”). Between the years 2014 and 2015 fifty seven thousand (57,000) emigrated from Scotland and eighty five thousand (85000) immigrated to Scotland, and most migrants came from other parts of the United Kingdom (“Scotland’s population swelled by migration”). The Scottish ethnic group is mainly a blend of Anglo-Saxon peoples, Celtic Peoples, and some strains of Norse peoples, and out of the celtics there were 3 peoples, the Britons, the Picts, and the Scots, the Scots being responsible for Scotland’s language and folklore (“Scotland”)Some immigrant groups include Irish labourers, some groups Jews, Lithuanians, Italians, and, Poles, recently there has been an increase of Asians, specifically from Pakistan. Since the enlargement of the european union in 2004 there has been a dramatic increase in immigration from eastern Europe (Simpson and Cameron). Scotland has an economy that is closely tied to the other countries in the United Kingdom. “Scotland has a predominantly industrial economy, the origins of which go back to the Industrial Revolution. During the 19th century, the economy was led by coal and iron-ore mining; steel, engineering, and textile industries; and shipping. Many Scottish products, especially ships, received worldwide acclaim for their excellence.” (“Scotland”)Scotland began to fall into economic problems after World War One, this was due to a lack of resources as many were used for the war, Scotland had also fallen behind in its production methods (“Scotland”). World War 2 had revived Scotland’s economy but many of its 19th century industries were in a state of decline, in order to fix this the government began a program to support industrial development, which brought about one of Scotland’s fastest growing industry, electronics (“Scotland”). Scotland also gained access to another large industry early on in the 1970’s.”Scotland’s chief mineral resource is oil, obtained from the North Sea. Production began in the early 1970s; by the early 1980s Scotland’s output was largely responsible for making Britain one of the leading oil-producing countries in the world (“Scotland”).Scotland’s GDP (Gross Domestic Product) estimate for 2015 was 233.332 billion. Below is a map of the political geography of Scotland which has remained relatively unchanged since the 15th century.MAPScotland has managed to stay almost completely free of religious conflict. An important event in Scotland’s religious history was the arrival of the christian missionary Saint Ninian, or Bishop Ninian, who in (around) 397 CE founded the first monastery in Scotland which was located at Whithorn (Mason and Waldman). During sixth and seventh centuries a Saint by the name of Kentigern performed missionary work and also  may have founded monasteries at Govan and the current site of what is now Glasgow Cathedral (Mason and Waldman). An Irish monk by the title of Saint Columba was a very large influence in promoting and spreading Celtic Christianity, which had a larger emphasis on monasticism; Saint Columba traveled for 32 years throughout Scotland preaching Celtic Christianity, his preaching was often accompanied by miracles, the saint founded numerous churches and monasteries throughout Scotland (Mason and Waldman). The current Church of Scotland is Presbyterian in structure and in doctrine it is Evangelical, it is the established religion and the largest communion, although the membership of the church has been declining steadily over the years (Simpson and Cameron).”Roman Catholics make up the second largest group, followed by Episcopalians, Congregationalists, Presbyterians unaffiliated with the established church (“Free Presbyterians”), Baptists, and Methodists” (“Scotland”). Writers and poets are a major part in the cultural heritage of Scotland (“Scotland”). “Outstanding Scottish literary figures include Robert Burns, Sir Walter Scott, William Dunbar, J. M. Barrie, Robert Louis Stevenson, and Edwin Muir” (“Scotland”). Famous Scottish painters include Allan Ramsay, David Wilkie, and Henry Raeburn (“Scotland”).

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