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The water supply is
the fundamental requirements for human life. Without water, life cannot be
sustained beyond a few days and the lack of access to adequate water supplies
leads to the spread of disease (Guy Howard et al, 2003).The wastewater
treatment is involved in order to protect the quality of life and limited freshwater
resources. Discharging wastewater without treatment into surface water resource
can affect aquatic life negatively (Fuat et al, 2011).Wastewater highly
composed of suspended particles, dissolved organic and inorganic matter as well
as several biological organisms such as algae, bacteria and viruses. This
material has to be removed since water quality will be deteriorated. The very
important step in water and in wastewater treatment is the coagulation – flocculation
which is considered as one of the most important and widely used treatment
processes due to its simplicity and effectiveness. (N.D Tzoupanos, 2008).

Coagulation-flocculation
is a chemical water treatment methods applied in various wastewaters prior to
the sedimentation and filtration techniques to enhance the ability of a
treatment process in order to remove suspended particles from the wastewater.Most
suspended solids in wastewater takes a negative charge and they consequently
repel each other. This repulsion prevents the particle from agglomerating
causing them to remain in suspension. The process of coagulation-flocculation
takes place in different steps intended to overcome the forces stabilizing the
suspended particles and letting the particle collision and development of
flocs, which can be settled and filtered out of the water. This process
technique is comparatively simple and cost effective as long as those chemicals
are highly available and the dosage is adapted to the water composition.

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In spite of the great
number of wastewater treatment heavy metal has become the most environmental
problem now a days. Therefore employing adsorption process by using nanomaterialsin
wastewater treatment has become the promising techniquein the recent yearsdue
to the adsorption properties and efficiency.  Carbon nanotubes (CNT’s) have been proven
effectively for removing heavy metals ions such as lead, chromium, copper and
nickel from wastewater(Haijiao et al. 2016).

 

1.1.       
Wastewater
Characterization

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